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School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies
1206 Dunton Tower
613-520-2366
http://carleton.ca/cdnstudies

This section presents the requirements for programs in:

Program Requirements

M.A. Canadian Studies (4.0 credits)

Requirements - coursework option (4.0 credits)
1.  0.5 credit in:0.5
CDNS 5001 [0.5]
M.A. Core Seminar: Conceptualizing Canada
2.  1.0 credit from: 1.0
CDNS 5101 [0.5]
Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North
CDNS 5102 [0.5]
Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada
CDNS 5201 [0.5]
Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism
CDNS 5202 [0.5]
Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates
CDNS 5301 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Studies
CDNS 5302 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Policy
CDNS 5401 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts
CDNS 5402 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice
CDNS 5501 [0.5]
Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
CDNS 5601 [0.5]
Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity
3.  2.5 credits from the courses listed above, or: 2.5
CDNS 5800 [1.0]
Internship/Practicum
CDNS 5801 [0.5]
Internship/Practicum
CDNS 5900 [1.0]
Directed Studies
CDNS 5901 [0.5]
Directed Studies
Or an approved coursed listed in the Selection of Courses
Total Credits4.0
Requirements - research essay option (4.0 credits)
1.  1.0 credit in M.A. Research Essay1.0
CDNS 5908 [1.0]
Research Essay
2.  0.5 credit in:0.5
CDNS 5001 [0.5]
M.A. Core Seminar: Conceptualizing Canada
3. 1.0 credit chosen from: 1.0
CDNS 5101 [0.5]
Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North
CDNS 5102 [0.5]
Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada
CDNS 5201 [0.5]
Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism
CDNS 5202 [0.5]
Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates
CDNS 5301 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Studies
CDNS 5302 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Policy
CDNS 5401 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts
CDNS 5402 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice
CDNS 5501 [0.5]
Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
CDNS 5601 [0.5]
Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity
4.  1.5 credits from the courses listed above, or: 1.5
CDNS 5801 [0.5]
Internship/Practicum
CDNS 5901 [0.5]
Directed Studies
Or an approved course listed in the Selection of Courses
Total Credits4.0
Requirements - thesis option (4.0 credits)
1.  2.0 credits in M.A. Thesis2.0
CDNS 5909 [2.0]
M.A. Thesis
0.5 credit in:0.5
CDNS 5001 [0.5]
M.A. Core Seminar: Conceptualizing Canada
2. 1.0 credit chosen from: 1.0
CDNS 5101 [0.5]
Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North
CDNS 5102 [0.5]
Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada
CDNS 5201 [0.5]
Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism
CDNS 5202 [0.5]
Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates
CDNS 5301 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Studies
CDNS 5302 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Policy
CDNS 5401 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts
CDNS 5402 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice
CDNS 5501 [0.5]
Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
CDNS 5601 [0.5]
Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity
3.  0.5 credit from the courses listed above, or: 0.5
CDNS 5901 [0.5]
Directed Studies
Or an approved course listed in the Selection of Courses
Total Credits4.0
Thesis/Research Essay Proposal

At the time of declaring their option, thesis/research essay students are encouraged to declare a preliminary topic and tentative list of potential supervisors. Thesis/research essay students must submit a research proposal to the School that has been approved by their thesis/research essay supervisor prior to registering in ( CDNS 5908 [1.0]) or ( CDNS 5909 [2.0]).

M.A. Canadian Studies
with Specialization in Digital Humanities (4.0 credits)

Requirements - research essay option (4.0 credits)
1.  1.0 credit in:1.0
CDNS 5908 [1.0]
Research Essay
2.  0.5 credit in:0.5
CDNS 5001 [0.5]
M.A. Core Seminar: Conceptualizing Canada
3.  1.0 credit from:1.0
CDNS 5101 [0.5]
Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North
CDNS 5102 [0.5]
Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada
CDNS 5201 [0.5]
Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism
CDNS 5202 [0.5]
Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates
CDNS 5301 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Studies
CDNS 5302 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Policy
CDNS 5401 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts
CDNS 5402 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice
CDNS 5501 [0.5]
Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
CDNS 5601 [0.5]
Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity
4.  0.5 credit from the courses listed in Item 3 above, or CDNS 5801 or CDNS 5901, or an approved course listed in the Selection of Courses0.5
5.  0.5 credit in:0.5
DIGH 5000 [0.5]
Issues in the Digital Humanities
6.  0.5 credit in DIGH (DIGH 5011, DIGH 5012, or annually listed DIGH course)0.5
7.  0.0 credit in:0.0
DIGH 5800 [0.0]
Digital Humanities: Professional Development
Total Credits4.0
Requirements - thesis option (4.0 credits)
1.  2.0 credits in:2.0
CDNS 5909 [2.0]
M.A. Thesis
2.  0.5 credit in:0.5
CDNS 5001 [0.5]
M.A. Core Seminar: Conceptualizing Canada
3.  0.5 credit from:0.5
CDNS 5101 [0.5]
Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North
CDNS 5102 [0.5]
Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada
CDNS 5201 [0.5]
Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism
CDNS 5202 [0.5]
Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates
CDNS 5301 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Studies
CDNS 5302 [0.5]
Canadian Cultural Policy
CDNS 5401 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts
CDNS 5402 [0.5]
Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice
CDNS 5501 [0.5]
Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
CDNS 5601 [0.5]
Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity
4.  0.5 credit in:0.5
DIGH 5000 [0.5]
Issues in the Digital Humanities
5.  0.5 credit in DIGH (DIGH 5011, DIGH 5012, or annually listed DIGH course)0.5
6.  0.0 credit in:0.0
DIGH 5800 [0.0]
Digital Humanities: Professional Development
Total Credits4.0
Thesis/Research Essay Proposal

At the time of declaring their option, thesis/research essay students are encouraged to declare a preliminary topic and tentative list of potential supervisors. Thesis/research essay students must submit a research proposal to the School that has been approved by their thesis/research essay supervisor prior to registering in CDNS 5908 or CDNS 5909.

Ph.D. Canadian Studies (10.0 credits)

Requirements:
1.  1.0 credit in:1.0
CDNS 6900 [1.0]
Ph.D. Core Seminar: Interdisciplinarity in Canadian Studies: Concepts, Theories and Methods
2.  1.0 credit in two courses or tutorials (or the equivalent) drawn from the graduate list offered by the School, below, with one 0.5-credit course drawn from each of the candidate's two major fields of study; a GPA of 9.0 or better must be obtained in these courses for students to be allowed to proceed to the comprehensive examinations;1.0
3.  1.0 credit in the successful completion of two 0.5-credit written comprehensive examinations. Students will be examined in two fields1.0
4. Language requirement: satisfactory demonstration of an understanding of a language other than English. Although French is the preferred second language, students may be permitted to substitute an Aboriginal language indigenous to Canada or another language if it is demonstrably relevant to their research interests;
5. A public defence, in English, of a written thesis proposal. Following the completion of their comprehensives, students will be expected to defend a proposal of the research and analysis they plan to undertake in completing their Ph.D. thesis. The thesis proposal defence should normally occur within six months after completion of a student's comprehensive examinations and within the first 27 months of registration in the program. The thesis committee will be composed of three faculty members, always including one from each university;
6.  7.0 credits in a Thesis, which must be successfully defended in English at an oral examination7.0
7. Comprehensive Examinations - Full-time students are expected to complete their comprehensive examinations within 24 months of their initial registration in the Ph.D. program. Part-time Ph.D. students should finish their comprehensive examinations within 36 months of completing course work. Both full-time and part-time students should complete their comprehensive examinations before defending their dissertation proposal
8. Candidates are required to take an oral examination after each written examination
Total Credits10.0
The fields of study for the Ph.D. comprehensive examinations are to be chosen from the following list:
Culture, Literature, and the Arts
A general knowledge of theories of culture in general, Canadian theoretical discourses on cultural practices, and on the interplay among theory, art, and literature, and their social contexts.
Environment and Heritage
A general knowledge of locality, landscape, environment and region in Canada.
Policy, Economy and Society
A general knowledge of the complex web of relationships linking economy, civil society, and public policy in Canada and their interaction within social, political, and cultural life.
Identities
A general knowledge of the character and experience of individual, collective and communal identities in Canada.
Women's Studies
A general knowledge of women's experiences of the major dynamics of social, political, economic and cultural development at all levels of Canadian life.

Ph.D. Canadian Studies
with Specialization in Political Economy (10.0 credits)

Requirements:
1.  0.5 credit in:0.5
PECO 6000 [0.5]
Political Economy: Core Concepts
2.  0.5 credit in a relevant political economy course from the approved list or the comprehensive in the major field of Policy, Economy and Society0.5
3.  1.0 credit in:1.0
CDNS 6900 [1.0]
Ph.D. Core Seminar: Interdisciplinarity in Canadian Studies: Concepts, Theories and Methods
4.  1.0 credit in the successful completion of two 0.5-credit written comprehensive examinations. Students will be examined in two fields1.0
5. Language requirement: satisfactory demonstration of an understanding of a language other than English. Although French is the preferred second language, students may be permitted to substitute an Aboriginal language indigenous to Canada or another language if it is demonstrably relevant to their research interests
6. A public defence, in English, of a written thesis proposal. Following the completion of their comprehensives, students will be expected to defend a proposal of the research and analysis they plan to undertake in completing their Ph.D. thesis. The thesis proposal defence should normally occur within six months after completion of a student's comprehensive examinations and within the first 27 months of registration in the program. The thesis committee will be composed of three faculty members, always including one from each university
7.  7.0 credits in a Thesis, which must be successfully defended in English at an oral examination7.0
8. Comprehensive Examinations: full-time students are expected to complete their comprehensive examinations within 24 months of their initial registration in the Ph.D. program. Part-time Ph.D. students should finish their comprehensive examinations within 36 months of completing course work. Both full-time and part-time students should complete their comprehensive examinations before defending their dissertation proposal
9. Candidates are required to take an oral examination after each written examination
Total Credits10.0

Canadian Studies Courses at Carleton University by Field of Study

To meet program requirements Carleton students must take at least one of the 0.5 credit courses from the Canadian Studies courses listed below. Students can also choose from approved graduate courses at the Frost Centre for Canadian Studies and Native Studies at Trent University. Students should consult with the Graduate Studies Administrator for the complete listing of acceptable graduate courses available at Trent University in any given year.

Culture, Literature, and the Arts
CDNS 5301 [0.5]Canadian Cultural Studies
CDNS 5302 [0.5]Canadian Cultural Policy
Environment and Heritage
CDNS 5401 [0.5]Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts
CDNS 5402 [0.5]Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice
Policy, Economy and Society
CDNS 5302 [0.5]Canadian Cultural Policy
CDNS 5501 [0.5]Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
CDNS 5601 [0.5]Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity
Identities
CDNS 5101 [0.5]Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North
CDNS 5102 [0.5]Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada
CDNS 5501 [0.5]Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities
Women's Studies
CDNS 5201 [0.5]Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism
CDNS 5202 [0.5]Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates
CDNS 5501 [0.5]Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities

Students may also register in graduate courses offered outside Canadian Studies.

All graduate courses must be approved by the Ph.D. Coordinator in Canadian Studies at Carleton University.

Canadian Studies (CDNS) Courses

CDNS 5001 [0.5 credit]
M.A. Core Seminar: Conceptualizing Canada

Interdisciplinary perspectives on theoretical and methodological approaches to Canadian Studies.
Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing in the School.

CDNS 5002 [0.5 credit]
Interdisciplinary Methods

A survey of the issues raised by problem-directed methodologies; critiques of existing methodology including from the standpoints of feminist and Aboriginal scholarship.

CDNS 5003 [0.5 credit]
Selected Topics in Canadian Studies

Topic varies from year to year.

CDNS 5101 [0.5 credit]
Indigenous Peoples, Canada and the North

Interdisciplinary seminar exploring selected Indigenous issues as they relate to historical and ongoing changes in material, social, and cultural phenomena and relationships.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5100.

CDNS 5102 [0.5 credit]
Indigenous Politics and Resurgence in Canada

Interdisciplinary seminar exploring selected themes in Indigenous politics, experience, and philosophy since the 1960s. Builds on CDNS 5101.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5100.
Prerequisite(s): CDNS 5101 or permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 5201 [0.5 credit]
Critical Perspectives on Canadian Feminism

Interdisciplinary seminar examining Canadian contributions to feminist and gender theory as well as developments in women's movements in a Canadian context.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5200.

CDNS 5202 [0.5 credit]
Gendering Canada: Selected Contemporary Debates

Interdisciplinary seminar focusing on specific themes that define Canadian women's and gender studies. Themes change yearly but past topics have included sexuality and sexual practices, health and reproductive rights, the body, motherhood and work.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5200.

CDNS 5301 [0.5 credit]
Canadian Cultural Studies

The arts, belief systems, institutions and communicative practices in Canada in relation to other social and historical structures.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5300.

CDNS 5302 [0.5 credit]
Canadian Cultural Policy

Evolution of Canadian cultural policy from its origins through to the contemporary search for cultural cohesion within a global context, emphasizing developments since the Massey Commission.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5300.

CDNS 5401 [0.5 credit]
Heritage Conservation I: History, Principles, and Concepts

History of heritage conservation theory in Canada and abroad, as it affects both tangible and intangible heritage; development of the field's conceptual frameworks and operational principles for understanding, evaluating, conserving and managing significant Canadian places of heritage value. Note: students registering in this course are strongly encouraged to register in CDNS 5402.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5400.

CDNS 5402 [0.5 credit]
Heritage Conservation II: Theory in Practice

Application of heritage conservation theory to practice. Models for conservation and management of heritage resources in Canada. Research, planning, development, interpretation and the interplay of disciplines within these conservation domains. Frameworks for evaluating programs and policies. Field exercises and visits.
Precludes additional credit for CDNS 5400.
Prerequisite(s): CDNS 5401 or permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 5501 [0.5 credit]
Decolonizing Canada: Cultural Politics and Collective Identities

Interdisciplinary examination of the politics of race, gender, class and cultural pluralism in Canada. Critical theoretical exploration of nationalism, regionalism, multiculturalism, neoliberalism, Aboriginal politics, diaspora and global human rights regimes and claims.

CDNS 5601 [0.5 credit]
Constructing Canada: The Politics of National Identity

Interdisciplinary examination of national identity, public opinion, and public policy; the intersection of national visions of Canada and public policy; and the articulation of Canadian distinctiveness and sovereignty on the world stage. Topics include nationalism and national identity, branding Canada, and selected policy fields.

CDNS 5700 [0.5 credit]
Arctic Passages: The Changing Dynamics of Canada's North

Interdisciplinary exploration of changing political, economic, and cultural relationships between Inuit and non-Inuit interests in the Canadian Arctic. Emphasis on the role of global processes, such as the rise of the circumpolar movement and environmental change, in mediating these relationships.

CDNS 5800 [1.0 credit]
Internship/Practicum

Internships or practicum placements are set in an institutional setting outside of the University. Students in the research essay option are restricted to a maximum of 0.5 credits in an Internship/Practicum. Students must complete a formal written paper in addition to their internship/practicum activities.
Prerequisite(s): completion of one full credit of coursework in Canadian Studies and prior approval of the School of Canadian Studies. For students in the coursework option only.

CDNS 5801 [0.5 credit]
Internship/Practicum

Internships or practicum placements are set in an institutional setting outside of the University. Students in the research essay option are restricted to a maximum of 0.5 credits in an Internship/Practicum. Students must complete a formal written paper in addition to their internship/practicum activities.
Prerequisite(s): completion of one full credit of coursework in Canadian Studies and prior approval of the School of Canadian Studies. For students in the coursework or research essay option only.

CDNS 5900 [1.0 credit]
Directed Studies

Reading and research tutorials supervised by a qualified adviser, in an area not covered by an existing seminar. Directed Studies are organized by individual students with a faculty member. Students in the thesis or research essay option are restricted to a maximum of 0.5 credits in a Directed Studies course.
Prerequisite(s): prior approval of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 5901 [0.5 credit]
Directed Studies

Reading and research tutorials supervised by a qualified adviser, in an area not covered by an existing seminar. Directed Studies are organized by individual students with a faculty member. Students in the thesis or research essay option are restricted to a maximum of 0.5 credit in a Directed Studies course.
Prerequisite(s): prior approval of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 5908 [1.0 credit]
Research Essay

Approval of the Research Essay Proposal is required prior to registration in this course.

CDNS 5909 [2.0 credits]
M.A. Thesis

Approval of the Thesis Proposal is required prior to registration in this course.

CDNS 6900 [1.0 credit]
Ph.D. Core Seminar: Interdisciplinarity in Canadian Studies: Concepts, Theories and Methods

Available only to Ph.D. students in Canadian Studies. An examination of the complex theoretical and methodological issues associated with the discourse on an interdisciplinary study of Canada. Offered at Carleton and Trent through a combination of joint sessions at both universities and regular electronic communication.
Prerequisite(s): enrolment in the Canadian Studies Ph.D. program.

CDNS 6901 [0.5 credit]
Ph.D. Tutorial

Available only to Ph.D. students in Canadian Studies. Reading and research tutorials. A program of research and written work in an area not covered by an existing graduate seminar.
Prerequisite(s): permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 6902 [0.5 credit]
Ph.D. Tutorial

Available only to Ph.D. students in Canadian Studies. Reading and research tutorials. A program of research and written work in an area not covered by an existing graduate seminar.
Prerequisite(s): permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 6905 [0.5 credit]
Ph.D. Comprehensive Examination

Available only to Ph.D. students in Canadian Studies. Students will receive a grade of Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory or Pass with Distinction.
Prerequisite(s): permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 6907 [0.5 credit]
Ph.D. Comprehensive Examination

Available only to Ph.D. students in Canadian Studies. Students will receive a grade of Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory or Pass with Distinction.
Prerequisite(s): permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

CDNS 6909 [7.0 credits]
Ph.D. Thesis

Prerequisite(s): permission of the School of Canadian Studies.

Summer session: some of the courses listed in this Calendar are offered during the summer. Hours and scheduling for summer session courses will differ significantly from those reported in the fall/winter Calendar. To determine the scheduling and hours for summer session classes, consult the class schedule at central.carleton.ca

Not all courses listed are offered in a given year. For an up-to-date statement of course offerings for the current session and to determine the term of offering, consult the class schedule at central.carleton.ca

Regulations

The minimum requirements for the master's program are outlined in the General Regulations section of this Calendar.

The School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies specifies that all candidates must select one of the following three program patterns:

  • 4.0 credits of coursework
  • 3.0 credits plus a 1.0 credit research essay
  • 2.0 credits plus a 2.0 credit thesis

Students must declare their option as coursework, thesis, or research essay no later than the end of the second term of registration for students enrolled full-time, and no later than the end of the fifth term of registration for students enrolled part-time. For students beginning their program in September the deadline is the following April 30, and for students starting in January the deadline is the following August 31.

Regulations

Consult the General Regulations section of this Calendar.

Doctoral candidates must successfully complete 10.0 credits. Candidates with deficiencies in certain areas may be admitted to the Ph.D. program, but normally will be required to complete additional work.

Academic Standing
All Ph.D. candidates must obtain at least B+ standing or better (GPA 9.0) in each course counted towards the degree. Comprehensive examinations (which will be graded on a Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory or Pass with Distinction basis) are exempted from this required standing.

Admission

Applicants to the M.A. Canadian Studies are required to hold a B.A. Honours (or the equivalent), with at least high honours standing.

Accelerated Pathway

The accelerated pathway in the M.A. in Canadian Studies is a flexible and individualized plan of graduate study for students in their final year of a Carleton M.A. in Canadian Studies.

Students in their third-year of study in the B.A. Honours Canadian Studies  degree should consult with both the Undergraduate Supervisor and the Graduate Supervisor to determine if the accelerated pathway is appropriate for them and to confirm their selection of courses for their final year of undergraduate studies. 

Accelerated Pathway Requirements

  1. CDNS courses at the 5000-level with a grade of B+ or higher
  2.  Minimum overall CGPA of A-

Students may receive advanced standing with transfer of credit of up to 1.0 credit which can reduce their time to completion.

Qualifying Year

Applicants who do not qualify for direct admission to the master's program may, in exceptional cases, be admitted to a qualifying-year program. However, admission to the qualifying-year program does not imply automatic admission to the master's program. At the end of the qualifying-year program the student will be required to apply for entry into the master's program, at which time the School will determine the student's eligibility to enter the program.

Proficiency in English

Proficiency in English is necessary to pursue graduate studies at Carleton University. All applicants whose first language is not English must satisfy this requirement by presenting a TOEFL score of 600 or higher.

Language Requirement
The School requires a reading knowledge of French. This is a program requirement and not an admission requirement. This requirement may be satisfied in the following ways:

  • Successful completion of FINS 3105 or its equivalent (with a grade of B- or better).
  • Successful completion of a French language examination.
  • Alternatively, a student may fulfill this requirement with a demonstrated knowledge of an Aboriginal language.
  • The School conducts the French language examinations in September and January. Students choosing the first option should note that examination results in these courses form part of their record, although they are additional to the course requirements for the degree.

Admission

Admission to the Ph.D. Canadian Studies requires a master's degree (or equivalent), with at least high honours standing in Canadian Studies or one of the disciplines represented in the School. Applicants should note, however, that meeting the admission requirement does not guarantee admission to the program.

The Ph.D. program in Canadian Studies normally will be undertaken on a full-time basis. In cases of exceptional merit, the School will accept a few candidates for the degree on a part-time basis.

Language Requirement
All doctoral students are required to pass the Ph.D. program's language test. The language test entails the translation into English of a French text (or a text in another approved language such as an Aboriginal language indigenous to Canada or another language if it is demonstrably relevant to their research interest). The language test is two hours long, and students are permitted to use a dictionary. Grades for the language test are Pass or Fail.

Students who have taken a language test as a requirement for their M.A. cannot use it to meet the Ph.D. language requirement. In order to establish equal treatment of all students, all doctoral candidates will be required to pass the Ph.D. language test.